Name: 
 

Chapter 1 Crime and Criminology



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

The complete institutional process of decision-making from the initial investigation or arrest by police to the eventual release of the offender and his or her re-entry into society and all the various sequential stages an offender passes is called:
a.
criminology
b.
courts
c.
corrections
d.
criminal justice system
e.
judicial system
 

 2. 

The scientific approach to the study of criminal behaviour is known as:
a.
criminology
b.
the sociology of law
c.
penology
d.
victimology
e.
integrated regulation
 

 3. 

According to the classical school of criminology:
a.
people who violated social norms or religious practices were believed to be witches or were possessed by demons.
b.
behaviour is purposeful and not motivated by supernatural forces.
c.
human behaviour is a function of external forces that are beyond individual control.
d.
law violators were physically different people of conventional values and behaviour.
e.
all of the above.
 

 4. 

The positivist tradition is based on the belief that:
a.
human behaviour is a function of external forces that are beyond individual control.
b.
human behaviour is controlled by social, political, and historical forces.
c.
individual brain structure or biological make-up can exert influence on human behaviour.
d.
the scientific method should be used to explain all behaviour.
e.
all of the above.
 

 5. 

According to conflict criminology the root cause of crime is
a.
superstition
b.
upbringing and learning
c.
social and political conflict
d.
biology
e.
internal drives
 

 6. 

Which of the following sub-areas of criminology focuses on predicting individual behaviour?
a.
criminal statistics
b.
theory construction
c.
criminal behaviour systems
d.
penology
e.
victimology
 

 7. 

According to International Crime Trends a woman may be burned to death if her family fails to provide the expected dowry to the groom’s family or is she is suspected of premarital infidelity in what country?
a.
Canada
b.
India
c.
New Zealand
d.
Columbia
e.
Netherland
 

 8. 

This view of crime holds that people act according to their own interpretations of reality, according to the meanings things have for them.
a.
consensus
b.
conflict
c.
interactionist
d.
positivist
 

 9. 

The primary area of interest in victimology includes:
a.
using victim surveys to measure the nature and extent of criminal behaviour.
b.
calculating the actual costs of crime to victims.
c.
creating probabilities of victimization.
d.
studying victim culpability or precipitation of crime.
e.
all of the above.
 

 10. 

All of the following are basic elements of classical criminology EXCEPT:
a.
in every society, people have free will to choose criminal or lawful solutions to meet their needs or settle their problems.
b.
criminal solutions may be more attractive than lawful ones because they usually require less work for a greater payoff.
c.
efforts are directed at providing behaviour alternatives for would-be criminals and treatments for individuals convicted of law violations.
d.
people’s choice of criminal solutions may be controlled by their fear of punishment.
e.
the more severe, certain, and swift the punishment, the better able it is to control the criminal behaviour.
 

 11. 

Emile Durkheim and L.A.J. (Adolphe) Quetelet are associated with which school of criminology?
a.
classical criminology
b.
nineteenth-century positivism
c.
positivist criminology
d.
sociological criminology
e.
conflict criminology
 

 12. 

According to the consensus view of crime:
a.
Criminal law reflects the values and opinions of society’s mainstream.
b.
The law is a tool of the ruling class.
c.
Crime is a politically defined concept.
d.
The law is used to control the underclass.
e.
Society is a collection of diverse groups who are in constant conflict.
 

True/False
Indicate whether the statement is true or false.
 

 13. 

According to the biological/psychological perspective, crime is a function of free will and personal choice.
 

 14. 

Cesare Lombroso claimed that born criminals suffer from atavistic anomalies and are throwbacks to more primitive times when people were savages.
 

 15. 

According to Karl Marx, crime is seen as normal because it has existed in every age, in both poverty and prosperity.
 

 16. 

The Chicago School sociologists and their contemporaries focused on the
functions of social institutions and how their breakdown influences behaviour.
 

 17. 

According to conflict criminology, the most important relationship is between the owners of the means of production and the people who do the actual labour.
 

 18. 

According to Marx’s conflict view of crime, the exploitation of the working class would eventually lead to class conflict and end of the capitalist system.
 

 19. 

The primary focus of the sociology of law is studying the correction and control of criminal behaviour.
 

 20. 

Cross-sectional research typically involves a single measurement that is of limited value in showing how subjects change over time.
 

 21. 

Experiments are frequently used by criminologists to study subjects’ lives.
 

 22. 

Research funding may dictate areas of criminology that can be studied.
 

Completion
Complete each statement.
 

 23. 

Criminology explains the origin and nature of crime, whereas _____________ refers to the agencies of social control that handle criminal offenders.
 

 

 24. 

_____________ behaviour is behaviour that departs from social norms and that is subject to social control.
 

 

 25. 

Classical criminology was based on the philosophy of _____________, which emphasized that behaviour is purposeful and not motivated by supernatural forces.
 

 

 26. 

The _____________ tradition contends that human behaviour is the function of external forces beyond individual control and that the scientific method should be used to study human behaviour.
 

 

 27. 

According to Karl Marx, the capitalist _____________ own the means of production.
 

 

 28. 

Criminologists interested in _____________try to create valid and reliable measurements of criminal behaviour.
 

 

 29. 

The ____________ is a sub-area of criminology concerned with the role that social forces play in shaping criminal law.
 

 

 30. 

The study of _____________ involves the correction and control of known criminal offenders.
 

 

 31. 

___________ research involves the simultaneous measurement of subjects in a sample who come from different backgrounds and groups.
 

 

 32. 

Studying criminals first-hand to gain insight into their motives and activities is an example of _____________ research.
 

 

Matching
 
 
Match the concept with its originator:
a.
mathematical techniques
b.
born criminals
c.
proletariat
d.
anomie
 

 33. 

Lombroso
 

 34. 

L.A.J. Quetelet
 

 35. 

Karl Marx
 

 36. 

Emile Durkheim
 
 
Match the concept with the appropriate school of thought:
a.
the scientific method
b.
utilitarianism
c.
social factors
d.
social ecology
e.
mode of production
 

 37. 

sociological criminology
 

 38. 

Chicago School
 

 39. 

conflict criminology
 

 40. 

classical criminology
 

 41. 

positivism
 
 
Match the sub-area of criminology with its primary focus:
a.
criminal statistics
b.
victimology
c.
sociology of law
d.
theory construction
e.
penology
f.
criminal behaviour systems
 

 42. 

gathering valid crime data
 

 43. 

studying the correction and control of criminal behaviour
 

 44. 

predicting individual behaviour
 

 45. 

studying the nature and cause of victimization
 

 46. 

determining the nature and cause of specific crime patterns
 

 47. 

determining the origin of law
 



 
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